The simulation step-by-step of the first humanoid apes (human ancestors) with 46 chromosomes from apes with 48 chromosomes illustrates it is unlikely.
The theory of evolution (Which was presented by Charles Darwin in the book the origin of the species) is widely accepted among scientists, thanks to genetic analysis and fossils that have been preserved and show gradual development through natural selection. Religious circles did not like the subject from the beginning, primarily because evolution provided a scientific explanation for something perceived as the act of creation. I must emphasize that my point of view is not religious but scientific.
The differences between the DNA of apes and humans seem seemingly small, a total of 4%. But the 15 million differences in precisely the correct sequence! are not the hand of chance or evolution by natural selection.
Simple methodological simulation of the first apes that underwent the mutation that reduced their chromosome number to 46 as humans have.
- Mutations caused the first-ever ape to fuse chromosomes, which were born with 46 chromosomes like humans. in place of 48. (In most cases, such changes result in a sick animal with low survival)
- Suppose the (first) ancestor was healthy and survived; it could not have produced fertile offspring with another great ape. Such hybridization would have created an ape with 47 chromosomes (similar to humans with Down's syndrome), and most likely, that hybrid child would be infertile. (Similar to a mule which is a cross between a horse and a donkey)
- Another possibility (even less likely) is that two identical mutations were created within a short time interval among opposite sexes that allow sexual reproduction.
- Since evolution requires inheritance, if such a pair was formed, those two individuals had to mate among all the other individuals.
- Since monkeys, including great apes, avoid incest, this is unlikely. Because it required the nuclear family's mating, the first was created with 46 chromosomes.
The conclusion that humans descend from apes seemed self-evident at the time, but on closer inspection - it does not stand the test of reality! The ancient humans resemble monkeys, but the conclusion that they are a direct result of evolution from apes, which is entirely random and spontaneous, will not stand up to a much more accurate simulation.
Darwinian evolution explains the first-order changes of the same species through natural selection. Still, it is lacking in animals (especially mammals) with different numbers of chromosomes.
- Take, for example, the modern horse, descended from an ancient creature of the canine family, in a documented and graded process that took about 50 million years.
- Horses have 64 chromosomes (32 pairs) while dogs have 78 chromosomes (39 pairs), so unlike humans and monkeys, where the difference is a single pair, a gradual process is required here. Adding and subtracting chromosomes is possible, as it also happens in humans. But in humans, it causes Down's syndrome, and in animals, it often causes morbidity and death!
Let's assume for a moment that "a new dog with 76 chromosomes or maybe less" is created. This is still not enough. Pairings of species with an unequal number of chromosomes often lead to sterility, similar to the case of a mule, a cross between a horse and a donkey.
Evolution is only inherited. Therefore, the same mutation, with the same number of chromosomes, was supposed to occur in a member of the opposite sex for them to produce fertile offspring. The probability of a double mutation event, But in the case of the opposite sex, it randomly stands for the power of minus 50 or higher! (completely unlikely)
Continue reading: Does the evolution of the species on earth originate from aliens?