Some of the gaps in women's and men's life expectancy are also due to gaps in lifestyle, employment, and diet, but this is a widespread phenomenon in almost all species of mammals. Therefore, the explanation must be more biological. The female hormone estrogen, secreted during a woman's fertility period, protects their liver. A long lifespan requires a robust immune system. The liver and kidneys directly affect the physiological system as a whole; therefore, a more vital liver provides a longer lifespan. The explanation for the phenomenon is evolutionary. Females play a crucial role in childbirth and raising offspring, so nature has given them a significant physiological advantage. On the other hand, the male hormone testosterone enables a rapid increase in muscle mass. However, physical strength in the modern world is unnecessary for survival and does not increase life expectancy!
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