Although women are less at risk, smoke, and drink less alcohol than men, the explanation is more profound and related primarily to different biological properties.
Some of the gaps in women's and men's life expectancy are also due to gaps in lifestyle, employment, and diet, but this is a widespread phenomenon in almost all species of mammals. Therefore the explanation must be more biological. The female hormone estrogen, secreted during a woman's fertility period, protects the liver. A long lifespan requires a robust immune system. The liver and kidneys directly affect the physiological system; therefore, a more vital liver provides a longer lifespan. The explanation for the phenomenon is evolutionary. Females play a crucial role in childbirth and raising offspring, so nature has given them a significant physiological advantage. On the other hand, the male hormone testosterone enables a rapid increase in muscle mass. However, physical strength in the modern world is unnecessary for survival and does not increase life expectancy!
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